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时间: 2019年12月15日 00:02

� Ninth of Fifth Month. -- A Friend at whose house we breakfasted setting us alittle on our way, I had conversation with him, in the fear of the Lord,concerning his slaves, in which my heart was tender; I used much plainness ofspeech with him, and he appeared to take it kindly. We pursued our journeywithout appointing meetings, being pressed in my mind to be at the YearlyMeeting in Virginia. In my travelling on the road, I often felt a cry rise fromthe centre of my mind, thus: "O Lord, I am a stranger on the earth, hide notthy face from me."On the 11th, we crossed the rivers Patowmack and Rapahannock, and lodged atPort Royal. On the way we had the company of a colonel of the militia, whoappeared to be a thoughtful man. I took occasion to remark on the difference ingeneral betwixt a people used to labour moderately for their living, trainingup their children in frugality and business, and those who live on the labourof slaves; the former, in my view, being the most happy life. He concurred inthe remark, and mentioned the trouble arising from the untoward, slothfuldisposition of the negroes, adding that one of our labourers would do as muchin a day as two of their slaves. I replied that free men, whose minds wereproperly on their business, found a satisfaction in improving, cultivating, andproviding for their families; but negroes, labouring to support others whoclaim them as their property, and expecting nothing but slavery during life,had not the like inducement to be industrious. A few days after writing these considerations, our dear friend in the courseof his religious visits came to the city of York, (2) and attended most of thesittings of the Quarterly Meeting there, but before it was over he was takenill of the smallpox. Our friend Thomas Priestman, and others who attended him,preserved the following minutes of his expressions in the time of hissickness:-First day the 27th of the Ninth Month, 1772. -- His disorder appeared to bethe smallpox. Being asked to have a doctor's advice, he signified he had notfreedom or liberty in his mind so to do, standing wholly resigned to His willwho gave him life, and whose power he had witnessed to raise and heal him insickness before, when he seemed nigh unto death; and if he was to wind up now,he was perfectly resigned, having no will either to live or die, and did notchoose any should be sent for to him; but a young man, an apothecary, coming ofhis own accord the next day and desiring to do something for him, he said hefound a freedom to confer with him and the other Friends about him, and ifanything should be proposed as to medicine that did not come through defiledchannels or oppressive hands, he should be willing to consider and take it, sofar as he found freedom. From hence I went back into Virginia, and had a meeting near JamesCowpland's; it was a time of inward suffering, but through the goodness of theLord I was made content; at another meeting, through the renewings of purelove, we had a very comfortable season. On the other hand, the spirit of Plato religion survived in the teaching of his disciple under a new form. The idea of an eternal personality was, as it were, unified and made objective by being transferred from the human to the divine; and so each philosopher developes an aspect of religious faith which is wanting in the other, thereby illustrating the tendencies, to some extent mutually exclusive; which divide all theology between them. It remains to observe that if even Aristotle theism is inconsistent with the Catholic faith, much more must his psychology be its direct negation. The Philosophy of the Philosopher is as fatal to the Church doctrine of future rewards and punishments as it is to her doctrine of divine interference with the usual order of nature. Sandy prodded Jeff, and quickly the pilot, much recovered, gave Larry his instructions. 日本在线视频www色,很很鲁啊鲁在线观看,97线观视频免费观看,亚洲... The next step was to create a method for determining the particular configuration on which any given property of matter depends. If such a problem could be solved at all, it would be by some new system of practical analysis. Bacon did not see this because he was a Schoolman, emancipated, indeed,377 from ecclesiastical authority, but retaining a blind faith in the power of logic. Aristotle Organon had been the great storehouse of aids to verbal disputation; it should now be turned into an instrument for the more successful prosecution of physical researches. What definitions were to the one, that Forms should be to the other; and both were to be determined by much the same process. Now Aristotle himself had emphatically declared that the concepts out of which propositions are constructed were discoverable by induction and by induction alone. With him, induction meant comparing a number of instances, and abstracting the one circumstance, if any, in which they agreed. When the object is to establish a proposition inductively, he has recourse to a method of elimination, and bids us search for instances which, differing in everything else, agree in the association of two particular marks.541 In the Topics he goes still further and supplies us with a variety of tests for ascertaining the relation between a given predicate and a given subject. Among these, Mill Methods of Difference, Residues, and Concomitant Variations are very clearly stated.542 But he does not call such modes of reasoning Induction. So far as he has any general name for them at all, it is Dialectic, that is, Syllogism of which the premises are not absolutely certain; and, as a matter of nomenclature, he seems to be right. There is, undoubtedly, a process by which we arrive at general conclusions from the comparison of particular instances; but this process in its purity is nothing more nor less than induction by simple enumeration. All other reasoning requires the aid of universal propositions, and is therefore, to that extent, deductive. The methods of elimination or, as they are now called, of experiment, involve at every step the assumption of378 general principles duly specified in the chapter of Mill Logic where they are analysed. And wherever we can rise immediately from, a single instance to a general law, it is because the examination of that single instance has been preceded by a chain of deductive reasoning. AVING felt my mind drawn towards a visit to a few meetings in Pennsylvania, Iwas very desirous to be rightly instructed as to the time of setting off. Onthe 10th of the Fifth Month, 1761, being the first day of the week, I went toHaddonfield Meeting, concluding to seek for heavenly instruction, and comehome, or go on, as I might then believe best for me, and there through thespringing up of pure love I felt encouragement, and so crossed the river. Inthis visit I was at two Quarterly and three Monthly Meetings, and in the love of truth I felt my way open to labour with some noted Friends who kept negroes. The sense I had of the state of the churches brought a weight of distressupon me. The gold to me appeared dim, and the fine gold changed, and thoughthis is the case too generally, yet the sense of it in these parts hath in aparticular manner borne heavy upon me. It appeared to me that, through theprevailing of the spirit of this world, the minds of many were brought to aninward desolation, and instead of the spirit of meekness, gentleness, andheavenly wisdom, which are the necessary companions of the true sheep ofChrist, a spirit of fierceness and the love of dominion too generallyprevailed. From small beginnings in error great buildings by degrees areraised, and from one age to another are more and more strengthened by thegeneral concurrence of the people; and as men obtain reputation by theirprofession of the truth, their virtues are mentioned as arguments in favour ofgeneral error; and those of less note, to justify themselves, say, such andsuch good men did the like. By what other steps could the people of Judah ariseto that height in wickedness as to give just ground for the Prophet Isaiah todeclare, in the name of the Lord, "that none calleth for justice, nor anypleadeth for truth" (Isa. lix. 4), or for the Almighty to call upon the greatcity of Jerusalem just before the Babylonish captivity, "If ye can find a man,if there be any who executeth judgment, that seeketh the truth, and I willpardon it" (Jer. v. 1)? He was a man endued with a large natural capacity, and, being obedient to themanifestations of divine grace, having in patienct and humility endured manydeep baptisms, he became thereby santified and fitted for the Lord's work, andwas truly serviceable in His Church. Dwelling in awful feel and watchfulness,he was careful in his public appearences to feel the putting forth of thedivine hand, so that the spring of the gospel ministry often flowed through himwith great sweetness and purity, as a refreshing stream to the weary travellerstowards the city of God. Skilful in dividing the Word, he was furnished by Himin whom are hid all the treasures of wisdom and knowledge, to communicatefreely to the several states of the people where his lot was cast. His conductat other times was seasoned with like watchful circumspection and attention tothe guidance of divine wisdom, which rendered his whold conversation uniformlyedifying. I also encouraged the young women to continue their neat, decent way ofattending themselves on the affairs of the house; showing, as the way opened,that where people were truly humble, used themselves to business, and werecontent with a plain way of life, they had ever had more true peace andcalmness of mind than they who, aspiring to greatness and outward show, havegrasped hard for an income to support themselves therein. And as I observedthey had so few or no slaves, I had to encourage them to be content withoutthem, making mention of the numerous troubles and vexations which frequentlyattended the minds of the people who depend on slaves to do their labour.